Sport has often been used throughout history as a political tool. In particular, sport boycotts have been effective measures for countries to express disdain and condemnation for the actions of another. In the last half of the 20th Century, the more famous boycotts were imposed as a response to apartheid policies in South Africa during the 1970s and 80s; the USSR’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, which led to the boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow; and the subsequent quid pro quo boycott of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.
During apartheid, South Africa was boycotted from several international sports competitions, dating from the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. This ban lasted until 1992, when South Africa was welcomed back at the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. In 1980, after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and killed President Hafizullah Amin, President Jimmy Carter ordered a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The full-court diplomatic press resulted in only 80 countries participating. Read more