Moments in U.S. Diplomatic History

Al Haig and the Reagan Assassination Attempt — “I’m in charge here”

reagan Al_Haig_speaks_to_press_1981When President Ronald Reagan was shot on March 30, 1981, chaos ensued behind the scenes at the White House. With no real protocol in place for such a situation, everyone involved had to improvise and hope that everything would turn out right. In an attempt to keep everyone calm, Al Haig, Reagan’s Secretary of State, committed a PR faux pas — and showed a glaring lapse in basic knowledge of the Constitution — by telling the press that he was in charge while the President was in surgery. Unaware of just how serious the President’s condition really was, key officials began to do their best damage control and keep not only the reporters calm but the country and the world at large.

G. Philip Hughes, the Vice President’s Deputy Foreign Policy Advisor, Samuel Gammon, the Executive Assistant in Management, and John Kelly, at the Secretariat at the Department of State, all watched the Haig incident unfold and tell their respective stories leading up to Haig’s misinterpreted declaration of power. Hughes was interviewed by Charles Stuart Kennedy beginning in August 1997. Gammon was interviewed by Charles Stuart Kennedy beginning in February 1989. Kelly was interviewed by Thomas Stern beginning in December 1995. Reagan’s would-be assassin, John Hinkley Jr., was released in July 2016.

You can also read about Haig’s embarrassment after a Nicaraguan soldier recanted regarding Cuban involvement in El Salvador, his run-in with the ambassador over U.S. policy in El Salvador, and his yelling match with an FSO who quit because of disagreements on bombing Cambodia. Go here to read about the events that led to his resignation.


Flushed and Frazzled

HUGHES:  When the assassination attempt on President Reagan occurred,… Al Haig came to the White House and he convened a meeting of the NSC to go over the situation with Reagan’s advisors. There was of course great public anxiety, and someone had to go up and make a press statement.

Either Haig nominated himself or someone nominated him but in any event he walked into the press room breathless. I remember watching this on TV from my office. He walked into the press room breathless. He looked perfectly flushed and frazzled….

The Vice President had been notified and he was flying back from Texas and in the meantime Al Haig was in control at the White House. A particularly infelicitous choice of words which, I think, already in the minds of many Reagan supporters and staff, for Al Haig to come up and say that “I, Al Haig, am in control here at the White House,” just convinced many people that, first of all he was intemperate and injudicious and not suited for the role, and further that he had vast ambitions of power in the administration which were not in keeping with the way that Reagan cabinet secretaries were expected to behave.

So frankly then there were a whole bunch of battles after that and Mr. Haig passed from the scene.

“It sounded like a putsch!”

Reagan, assassination attemptGAMMON:  This is too good an anecdote to miss, the afternoon that Reagan was shot. Richard Kennedy had taken Read’s post as Under Secretary for Management.

I had known Dick since he was one of Kissinger’s people in the NSC in my S/S [Secretary’s staff] incarnation some years earlier. He got the phone call that the President had been shot.

He very properly grabbed me and one other staffer, and we flew down the corridor to the Operations Center of the Department which has superior communications.

We plugged in then, because Al Haig, as we all remember, went darting over to the White House very properly. Al’s instincts were right in every respect except his PR instinct was abysmal.

Haig went on television and said ‘I’m in charge here and not to worry.’ But his sound instinct in this type of situation of passing the message to everybody that the U.S. government continues and there’s no problem miscarried in his delivery– [it] sounded like a putsch! Well, we did not know then and we didn’t find out until many months later how serious the shooting was. At the time the early word was that the President was okay.…

We were in the Ops Center from about 1:30 or 2 in the afternoon until 9:30 at night until he came out of surgery. The first thing we did was we sent for the emergency manual. There is of course a manual in the Department for everything. The emergency book was still called the Carter-Mondale Book.

The only thing it covered was the death of a president in an assassination; it was based on Kennedy, what you knew. It had the standard operating procedure, you do this and you do that, you get somebody from the historical office to make sure that there’s a good historical record and reassuring messages to, the whole schmeer was all in there, except it did not cover what we then saw very clearly might be the real contingency until we were told, “Oh, poo poo, it was minor.”

Which was a lie. The Kennedy/Lincoln model is not the only one — there is also the Garfield and the McKinley. What do you do about the 25th Amendment and the long lingering total incapacity and the Wilson precedent?

The first thing I did the next day was to ask the Ops Center to redo the book, taking into account the 25th Amendment, having some other contingency situation other than the fatal, an airplane crash or an assassination or a fatal abrupt cutting off of the presidency, to take account of the whole middle ground area that might develop–which I have reason to believe they did, I never saw the final product.

“It was an unfortunate use of words, which was blown all out of proportion”

KELLY:  We were hard at work that afternoon; I was in my Deputy Executive Secretary’s office which was adjacent to the Secretary’s office when I heard that the President was shot. Like everyone else, we turned on our TVs. Haig was in his office.

At first, of course, we heard a lot of misinformation or poor information. When it became clear that the President had been seriously wounded, Haig asked for a briefing on the Constitutional process that determines succession. I think that was very appropriate; the senior member of the Cabinet should be up-to-date on this question.

There was some confusion in the senior levels of the government.…The President was totally incommunicado; the Vice President was on an airplane heading for Hawaii. Haig talked to others as well and it became clear that no one was doing anything to bring the panic under control. By mid-afternoon, the world knew that the President was in serious condition, but not much else.

Larry Speakes, the White House spokesperson, went on TV and did not make a reassuring appearance; it was clear that he was very shaken as was all of the White House staff. In the Department, we knew, based on previous similar experiences, that the U.S. had to assure its allies and adversaries that its government was functioning normally; that despite the temporary loss of its leader, the U.S. had the situation well in hand….

I and someone from L [the State Department’s Legal Bureau] probably drafted a “flash” message to all our embassies overseas, telling them what we knew the situation to be, including the President’s medical situation and requesting that they convey to their host governments reassurance that the situation was under control.

Some of the Assistant Secretaries were on the phone talking to some foreign leaders, some of whom had called the White House and may not have been put at ease by Dick Allen, the National Security Advisor or whoever they may have talked to.

1436-6In any case, Haig saw the necessity to calm the fears in other capitals. So I thought the Secretary was approaching the issue as it was supposed to be addressed.

In one of his conversation with [Counselor to the President and later Attorney General Edwin] Meese, Haig suggested that the Cabinet be convened, which was done.

There ensued an alleged argument between Haig and [Secretary of Defense Casper] Weinberger which has been widely reported in the press. It was reported that Weinberger, on his own authority, had raised the “alert” status of our armed forces.

This was a subject that Haig knew far better than Weinberger; he felt that in absence of any threat the alert level should not be changed and that, on the contrary, this action gave just the opposite impression from the one that was to be conveyed, i.e., normalcy.

The last thing that was needed was to get into an accidental conflict. So the Secretaries of State and Defense had a clear difference of opinion. Speakes appeared again in public, still looking shaken and unsure. We saw Speakes on the TV, but we didn’t know whether the Cabinet was also watching in the Situation Room.

So we called the Sit Room and asked that a message be passed to Secretary Haig. We suggested that someone of stature appear on TV to reassure the country and the world because we thought that Speakes was falling far short of doing that. We may have overstepped the boundaries of our responsibilities, but we did send such a message.

Sometime after that, Haig ran up to the press room and made his famous statement that “I am in charge here” in answer to a question. It was an unfortunate phrase because all he wanted to convey that he was the senior Cabinet officer present; there is no doubt in my mind that he was not trying to usurp the prerogatives of various officials, but his comment contributed to Haig’s reputation as a “hot head.”

It was just an unfortunate use of words, which was blown all out of proportion.

  • DXGypsy

    Haig was at the White House Situation Room, along with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and National Security Advisor Richard Allen, neither of whom grasped the gravity of the situation with regard to Soviet intentions, and both of whom would attack Haig’s actions later.

    Haig recognized from all the indicators that the Soviets were in the process of launching World War III, while neither Weinberger (a politician) nor Allen (an academic) recognized the threat. In horror, Haig watched a live television monitor as Deputy Press Secretary Larry Speaks fumbled in the Press Room; in answer to journalist Leslie Stahl’s question of “who was running the government in the absence of President Reagan?”, Speaks responded that “I cannot answer that question at this time” which was like a flashing neon sign to the Soviets that said, “NOBODY IN CHARGE HERE!”

    Reagan was barely in the ambulance when the Soviet Warsaw Pact ground and air forces were mobilized, along with the strategic rocket forces, their nuclear submarine forces were alerted to take up attack positions off the U.S. coasts. and the Soviet Command Train [their mobile command center] was activated. This was all noted by every intelligence agency on the globe. Escalations were exploding. The Soviets feared Haig. They had tried unsuccessfully to assassinate him previously and he was the absolute last person they expected or wanted to see in charge of the US government.

    So Haig did not commit a faux pas, nor did he show a lack of understanding of the constitution. The man basically stopped WWIII from breaking loose. Brezhnev and his generals immediately recognized that a face-off with Haig would surely bring about the destruction of the Soviet Union, and they ordered the stand-down of the Soviet/Warsaw Pact military forces.

  • M.K. Geary

    I will be ‘frank,’ & surely,
    “dead men tell no lies”

  • prokr
  • cknob

    Absolutely correct. Haig’s rush to the microphone was precipitated by Speaks’ fumbling of the press conference. Haig’s misstatements were ripped apart like fresh meat by a press corps out to get him since the Nixon administration.

  • Barry Fitzgerald

    I think Haig may have avoided WW3. His message was obviously aimed right at the USSR and we know now that the Warsaw Pact had mobilized many of it’s forces also the Soviet sub-fleet. What he said has almost legally correct besides nobody was ever talking about invoking the 25th Amendment the question was who was in charge at the White House right then. The Soviets knew that Haig would press the button if necessary. After all they tried to kill him when he was NATO commander. BTW I was in Europe at the time serving in Her Majesty’s Royal Marines and we all loved it.

  • sstabeler

    Not to mention that when Haig made his statement, he WAS in charge legally- the Speaker and President |Pro Tempore WEREN’T PRESENT any more than the Vice President was. ( the Cabinet was meeting at the time, but neither the Speaker or President Pro Tempore attend cabinet. So, he was in fact the senior official present, and thus the statement was even legalyl correct. It could perhaps have been worded better (Something like “I am the senior official present, therefore, I am in charge until the Vice president gets here”- the Speaker would not have been on his way, so there would be no need to mention him. same for the President Pro Tempore.) but he was, in fact, correct that at that point, he held the reigns of power. ( he probably DID get told off for not wording it better later, though)

  • mce

    I can only say that no matter what the world knew that Al Haig was in charge and the US was in safe hands until order was restored. Someone has to step up, someone has to lead. What he said and did let the citizens and all the world know that the US was not drifting, waiting to see what happened. The average American felt comfortable that there was leader in charge during the chaos and he was hand picked by the President, the Republic was safe. The average person was not trying to figure out all the twists, turns and legalities.

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  • grevyturty

    Complete fucking moron. Glad his career died after that.

  • eryk tattershall

    true, but he did scare the communists quite a bit, that’s a plus right?

  • eryk tattershall

    but I do agree he acted quite irrationally

  • Paulie Walnuts

    What people don’t realize is that Haig was, at the time, speaking directly to the Soviet Union. It was a veiled way of saying, “Don’t try anything, someone here has their finger on the button.” It wasn’t a gaffe – it was a sacrifice. He paid with his career arc and by becoming the butt of jokes. Remember, the world was a much different place, then.

  • Jorge R. Brito de Souza

    On that ocasion, where were Jim Baker – the Cheaf of Staff? Should not be he the person to coordinate all that situation?

  • True Patriot

    What should have been said is that I have been in touch with the VP and he is returning to the White House. I have also been in contact with with the speaker of the house.

  • True Patriot

    Haig had a big ego but this was not a coup. The press played on it but it was really no big deal except for Haig himself.

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  • czervik

    Monday morning quarterbacking has always proved useful for future situations. It has rarely worked well at explaining the immense weight felt by the individuals tasked with running the greatest nation on Earth when its leader was on an operating table and enemies watched for openings. Al Haig took a lot of heat, and may have not been the best PR guy, but he clumsily tried to convey that experienced hands were steering the wheel while the driver fought for his life. Thank God for our constitution and the clear lines of succession we take for granted. The passage of power doesn’t work like this in 98% of the world.

  • MontcoGuest

    That’s how I remember it as well, as I watched these events as they unfolded, and his error in the succession details were immediately noted by the news coverage. My mother wanted to give him a pass, as he was obviously a bit shaken and upset, as were most everyone. (I think she was right BTW.) It’s just that it played into a perception people had at the time that Haig had a bit of an imperious temperament.

  • marsilius

    I believe your defense of the essential content of Secretary of State Haig’s statement is well justified. But there is no good evidence that the Soviet Union had been behind the assassination attempt made upon Haig, in Europe, in June 1979, four days before Haig was to leave the office of Supreme Allied Commander for Europe, within NATO. I realize that Haig, at his Senate confirmation hearings, in February 1981, had said he believed the Soviets were behind the attempt, but it is very doubtful that even Haig himself believed that. This was a time at which the incoming Reagan administration was trying to blame just about everything on the Soviets, regardless of the absence of evidence or other good reasons for making particular charges. There is also no good evidence “that the Soviets were in the process of launching World War Three” at the time of the March 1981 Reagan assassination attempt, or that the Soviets backed down from launching a world war only in virtue of Haig’s statement. The Soviet military exercises were just designed to intimidate the Solidarity trade union movement in Poland. But I agree with you that some leader in the White House did need to speak out forcefully, as Haig did, in the face of the hypothetical possibility that the Soviets could implement military occupation of, and rule over, their satellite Poland, something Brezhnev actually didn’t want to “have” to try to do. Haig’s assertiveness gave Brezhnev a huge excuse for *not* trying to take control of Poland, in discussions with his generals and potential political rivals. And Secretary Haig *did* rank immediately below the Vice President in *executive branch authority*. I believe it was commendable, on balance, that Haig pointed out that he was, for the time being, in control, in the White House.

  • marsilius

    Also, the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate, are, of course, *not* holders of any executive branch office. Thus, neither of the possessors of those two places near the top of the legal succession to the office of the U.S. Presidency could have any executive branch *authority* unless and until one of them would actually become President. Alexander Haig, the former general, did indeed rank just below the Vice President, in terms of executive branch authority. Haig was well justified, in asserting that he was “in control” of the executive branch, while the President was incapacitated and the Vice President was absent (and was still *not* President *or* Acting President).

  • marsilius

    No, the Constitution doesn’t state any full order of succession to the Presidency. The Constitution specifies only that the immediate successor is the Vice President (the Constitution, prior to the Twenty-Fifth Amendment, doesn’t even specify whether the Vice President then becomes President, or is instead just an Acting President). The earliest order of succession was established only by way of the Presidential Succession Act of 1792. (When the order of succession has been legislatively changed, no constitutional amendment has been necessary.) I would say that Haig was mistaken in saying “Constitutionally,” but that he would have been correct had he said “Legally,” because he was actually talking *not* about succession to the Presidency, but rather about executive branch *authority*. The Secretary of State does indeed legally rank immediately below the Vice President, in executive branch authority.

  • sstabeler

    it’s also worth noting that he never claimed he was |Acting President- his actual statement was “I, Al Haig, am in control here at the White House,” which was objectively true- no more senior official was present, and he was chairing a meeting of the NSC. The statement was made because an argument had broken out between Haig and the Secretary of Defense- the SecDef wanted to raise the alert level on his own authority, Haig wanted to wait until the situation was clearer. Haig was probably correct- in a crisis, the important thing is for the government to act together. (the issue isn’t that the SecDef wanted to raise the alert level- the issue is that he wanted to do it on his own authority- in a crisis, you don’t need a hothead going off on their own making matters worse)

  • marsilius

    Yes, I did realize Secretary Haig never asserted he was Acting President, a title that he knew could only be properly applied in accordance with certain procedures established by way of the succession-governing Twenty-Fifth Amendment (although some members of Congress had already wanted to apply that title to John Tyler, when Tyler assumed the duties of the office of the Presidency, back in 1841, after President William Harrison had died in office, as the unprecedentedly first President to die in office). But what is your source for the claim that the spoken dispute between Secretary of State Haig and Secretary of Defense Weinberger had already “broken out” *before* Haig made his “I am in control” statement? My understanding has been that that disagreement took place only *after* Haig had informed the press, and others, that he was in control. According to a mainstream press source I have just found now, this seems to have been the account of that dispute, to which you refer, that was circulated to the press two days later, and Haig seems then *not* to have disputed that account. I’m skeptical of new accounts of events of this kind that come out decades later, ordinarily, unless genuinely good reasons to believe the later account is more accurate, than the earlier account, can be given, regarding some particular case. (If you’re interested in hearing, a bit more fully, what my understanding is, regarding this historical event, in its legal essence, please see my two other posts on this page.)

  • David

    It didn’t die after that, he was still a player at the Pentagon. He was there during 9/11, helped carry people out.

  • [email protected]

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  • LaChusaCabra

    H.W. did the right thing by not landing on the South Lawn. Haig was jumpy and didn’t properly respect the office in the moment. I don’t blame him for that (who knows what I would’ve done) but there were people who did the right thing in the moment and knew what the wrong thing to do was in that moment. Haig didn’t.

  • Jim H

    It was the way Haig handled himself in public and behind the scene. He was correct about being the go to guy because President Reagan was not deceased and the two people in between him and George H. W. Bush would have had to resign their legislature offices to be sworn in as President and that couldn’t happen unless Reagan had died or been permenately incapable of fulfilling his duties as President. He was wrong about the succession in terms of dying or incapacity but he was correct practically speaking but his demeanor and exact choices of words only created confusion and Reagan was already having problems with Haig and this clarified his status as someone to watch and someone who should be looking outside in which happened in due time.

  • Jason A. Quest

    The Speaker and President Pro Tem do not need to resign their offices to become *Acting* President (which does not require a swearing-in ceremony).

  • John Fritz

    My cat is in control, here, at the White House. Thank you.

  • I know this post is old but I exactly agree with you. Whether it was just news fabrication at the time or not, it was spread that Haig had the football with him and was speculating the Soviets had a role in the attempted assassination, and widespread fear was emerging that he would pull the trigger at any time. (I am too young to remember this – wasn’t even born until 4 years later – however from my love of history and the reports I’ve read and by interviewing those close to me who were there at the time, I assume this is of some truth.)

  • bertha yellowfinch

    And the Vice President, GEORGE HW BUSH, who’s son had a friendly meal with the shooter prior to the Reagan assassination attempt, did a duck and run and refused to assume the legal responsibilities of the Vice President. Bush went “silent”. He is to this very day linked to the assassination attempt of Reagan. The republican good ol boys protected Bush.

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